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情态动词有can, could, may, might, must, should, ought to, need, dare, had better, would rather 等。情态动词相当于助动词,不能单独使用,必须再接动词原型。ought to 整个相当于情态动词,否定是在情态动词后加not,但是ought to的否定是ought not to。

1.can, could


She is only four, but she can read.

Is there anything that I can do for you?

This sort of thing can't go on.

I couldn't follow her speech.

Could you lend me your bike?

Fire can't destroy gold.真金不怕火练

2.may, might


The dialect of one province may be quite different from that of the next one.

Students may not stay out after midnight without written permission.(stay out 在外边待的很晚)

He asked his mother if he might go out to play.

"May I open the window?" "Yes, please./ Please don't./ No, you mustn't." (may 如果要否定用mustn't,could和might用在现在时表委婉的说法)


表示"肯定"、"准是",还可以表示"必须",与have to 意思接近,但must 侧重说明主观看法,have to 强调客观需要。must时主观表达方式,have to是客观表达方式。mustn't 表示"千万不要"、"一定不要"。

If you must go, at least you wait till the rain is over.

Teachers always tell us we must do everything step by step.

--Must I go tomorrow?

--No, you needn't.(Yes, I'm afraid so. must一般疑问句的否定用needn't来回答)

He has to tidy up the room everyday.(tidy up 打扫干净)

(He must tidy up the room everyday.)

We have to study a foreign language.

You mustn't talk like that to your parents.

4.ought to , should


You ought to go to see a doctor for you don't look well.

You shouldn't talk like that.

The old man said you ought to tell the police.

You oughtn't to smoke so much everyday.

The work ought to be finished by next Friday.

The book should be available in the bookstore. (available 可得到的)



Need I come?-Yes, you must.(No, you needn't)

All you need do is to say yes to his questions.

He said he needn't hurry.

need 还可以作实义动词,后面接动名词时相当于被动结构。

You don't need to stay.(=You needn't say. )

Does he need to know it?(= Need he know it?)

needs/ wants/ requires +doing相当于被动语态。

The question needs/ wants/ requires discussing.(=needs to be discussed.)

My shoes need repairing.(My shoes need to be repaired.)




The boss is so hot-tempered that no one dare tell him the bad news.(so……that 如此……以至于)

Who dare stop you?

He doesn’t dare to look out of the window.


She dare not say what she thinks.(=She doesn’t dare to say what she thinks.)

7.had better

表示“最好”。否定为 had better not

I had better not disturb him.

We had better go and see the doctor now.

8.would rather

表示“宁愿”,后面接从句时,从句的谓语用一般过去时。否定用would rather not。

I’d rather not say anything.

John would rather work in a company than in a factory.

She would rather have the small oranges than the large ones.

I would rather you came tomorrow.

(would sooner 迟早,后的宾语从句用虚拟语气,一般过去时。)

I would sooner she left the heavy end of the work to someone else.

有些情态动词,如can, could, may, might, must, ought to, should 后面可以接动词的完成形式,表示对已经发生的事的猜测或对应该发生的事的看法。

They shouldn’t have left so soon.

They must have been through a lot.

I needn’t have told them that.

He can’t have left for Shanghai for I saw him a moment ago.

How could you have forgotten such an important thing?

They must have arrived by now.

You oughtn’t to have done that.

She looks so miserable. You oughtn’t to have hurt her feelings.

“I was late yesterday because my car broke down. ”(broke的原型是break,这里表抛锚的意思) “You should have borrowed mine. I wasn’t using it. ”

情态动词部分除了应了解每个词的具体含义之外,情态动词的否定是在后面加not。特别要 注意had bette和would rather的否定。ought to的否定是ought not to。would rather后面接句子只能用一般过去时。can、could、may、might、must、ought to、should后接动词完成式表示对过去事情的猜测。

“may/might + 现在完成时”表示“也许已经……了”;

“must + 现在完成时”表示“肯定……了”;

“can / could + 现在完成时”表示“本来是能够……的(实际上未)”;

“should/ought to + 现在完成时”表示“本应该……(实际上未)”。

1.That was in March. You may / might have read about it in the newspapers.

2.The house is dark; the Browns _______ to bed.

A. may go B. should go C. should have gone D. must have gone

(答案 D)

3.Her husband could have helped her, but he chose not to.(choose)

4.You _______ yesterday if you were really serious about the job.

A.ought to come B. ought come C. ought to have come D. ought have come

(答案 C serious 严肃的)


1.To travel from England to Scotland you _______ a passport.

A. mustn’t have B. haven’t got C. don’t need D. needn’t

(情态动词后要接动词原型 答案 C)

2.The house needs ________, but they plan to wait until next spring to do it.

A. paint B. to paint C. painting D. be painted

(答案 C)

1. “Do you have to leave?”

“Sorry , but I really _____.”

A. have B. had to C. do so D. must

答案 D

2. I want to go to the dentist, but you ________ with me.

A. needn’t to go B. needn’t go

C. don’t need go D. need go


don't need为实义动词,后面接to

答案 B

3. “______ you pass me the salt?”

“Sure. Here you are .”

A. Might B. Must C. Could D. Need

答案 C

4. “I haven’t felt well for a week.”

“You ______ see a doctor.”

A. have ought ot B. had better

C. should have to D. would rather

答案 B

5. “Doesn’t Elaine want to see that movie?”

“Yes, but she says _______ go tonight.”

A. she’ll rather not B. she’d rather not

C. she’d not rather D. she won’t rather

would rather的否定词放在rather的后面,动词的前面。

答案 B

6. “Listen, Mary is singing in the next room.”

“That ______ be Mary. She’s in hospital.”

A. may not B. shouldn’t C. should have gone D. can’t

答案 D

7. John ______ a restless person. He kept moving from country to country.

A. must be B. should go C. must have been D. must have gone

答案 C

8. I can’t find Tom anywhere. I think he ____ to the library.

A. may go B. must go C. must have gone D. should have gone

should have gone 应该……而实际上没……

答案 C

9. “What’s the matter with that picture on the wall?”

“It needs _________.”

A. straightening B. to be straightening C. straightened D. straighten

答案 A

10. “Tom graduated from college at a very young age.”

“He _________ an outstanding student.”

A. must be B. could be C. must have been D. should have been


答案 C

11. The old lade needs ________ after her shock.

A. to comfort B. comforting C. to be comforted D. Both B and C

答案 D



(一)不定式:to +动词原形


To see is to believe.(眼见为实)


It only took us a year to finish the work.

Once you get into the habit of smoking, you’ll find it extremely difficult to get out of it.(get into the habit 养成……习惯)

She likes to play basketball this afternoon.

The important thing is to save people.

Not to grasp firmly is not to grasp at all.(不定式的否定放在to的前面)

She was the first person to think of the idea. (think of 想起)

He is always the first to come and last to leave the office.

I have nothing to say on the problem.

They warned him not to let out the secret.(let out 泄露)

We are all happy to hear of the good news.

Let’s hurry so as not to be late for the meeting. (so as to do sth. 以便为了做某事)


They didn’t warn him to let out the secret.

They warn him not to let out the secret.

(一)不定式:to +动词原形

不定式在let, have, make (让, 使), see, look at, notice, hear, listen to, feel 等后面作宾语补足语时to 应省略,在被动语态中to应保留。

The coach has the team practice hard every night in the past two years.

I saw a man come into the classroom and talk with the teacher.

Don’t forget to have him come tonight.

We felt the house shake.

The house was felt to shake.

Someone was heard to come up the stairs.

在help 后, 不定式可以带to 也可以不带to.

Help me (to) get him to bed.

He help her lift the box.

He helped her to mount the bike.

She was helped to lift the box.


There is nothing to worry about.

Is this something to be ashamed of ?

I need a pen to write with.

Give me some paper to write on.

Let’s find a room to put the things in.


不定式前面可以加for 或of引导的短语作逻辑主语,说明不定式表示的动作是谁做的,或不定式指的是谁的情况。

It is a great honor for us to be present at this party.

It will be a mistake for us not to help them.

It is hard for one to do a bit of good.

在某些形容词如kind, good, nice, wise, unwise, clever, silly, wrong, right, foolish, stupid, careless, considerate, rude, naughty, impolite等作表语时,用of引导短语。

It’s kind of you to let me use your dictionary.

It’s unwise of them to turn down the proposal.(turn down 拒绝)

It’s very nice of you to attend our party tonight.


当不定式所表示的动作在谓语所表示的动作之前发生时,不定式要用完成式: to have +过去分词;当不定式的动作与谓语所表示的动作同时发生时,不定式要用进行时:to be+现在分词;当不定式的逻辑主语是不定式所表示的动作的承受者时,不定式要用被动式:to be+过去分词。完成式意味着不定式的动作发生在谓语动作之前,如果是进行时意味着不定式的动作和谓语动作同时发生,当不定式的逻辑主语是不定式所表示的 动作的承受者时,不定式要用被动式。

I’m sorry to have given you so much trouble.

I meant to have told you about it, but I forgot to do so.

They seemed to be satisfied with the result.

This is the day not to be forgotten.

He wanted the letter to be typed at once.

They seem to be getting along quite well.

He pretended to be sleeping when his mother came in.


We have a lot of work to do.

Give me something to eat.

They found the book hard to understand.

He has no one to take care of. (take care 照顾、照料)


He has no one to take care of him.没有谁照顾他。



1.“Where do you suggest going?”

“We promised _______ the children to the West Lake.”

A. taking B. to take C. taken D. took

(suggest doing sth.或suggest that +(should)动词原型)

(Where do you suggest that we should go?)\

(答案 B)

2.The city government must take action ________ the increasing population.

A. to control B. controlling C. controls D. controlled

(答案 A)

3.Pessimists warn us not _________ for pretty colors, since the car will come in gray.

A. ask B. asking C. to ask D. to be asked

(答案 C)

考生应特别注意在主动语态中,不定式在let, make , have(使,让), see, hear 等词后面作宾语补足语时,to 应省略,但在被动语态中to 应保留。

1.The workers asked the factory owner to let him go.

2.The children were made to repeat their parents’ words for several times.

1. “I’m sorry. Were you speaking to me ?”

“Yes, I was. Would you please _________ in this room?”

A. not to smoke B. not smoke

C. no smoking D. no smoke

would you please+动词原型

答案 B

2. There was nothing they could do ______ calmly.

A. but wait B. only to wait

C. except waiting D. unless they waited

nothing they can do but do sth.

答案 A

3. Mr. Smith doesn’t want _______ what to buy.

A. his wife tell him B. for his wife to tell him

C. his wife to tell him D. that his wife tells him

答案 C

4. Many parents allow their children _______ own decisions.

A. making their B. making the

C. to make their D. to make the

答案 C

5. “How can Mary get her money back?”

“I advised ______ to the manager.”

A. her speak B. her to speak

C. that she speaks D. a speech by her

答案 B

advise that+虚拟语气

I advise that she should speak to the manager.

6. “My brother says he won’t help us.”

“Oh, perhaps I can persuade him _______.”

A. to help B. helping C. for helping D. that he helps

答案 A

7. Don’t make him _______ it if he doesn’t want to .

A. do B. to do C. doing D. that he do

答案 A

8. “Where are you going?”

“To help the neighbors _______ the dinner party.”

A. to get ready B. get ready for

C. getting ready for D. by getting ready

get ready for 为……准备

答案 B

9. “Can you ride a horse ?”

“No. I never had the chance ______.”

A. for learning B. for learning how

C. how to learn it D. to learn how

答案 D

10. I haven’t got a chair _______.

A. to sit B. to sit on C. for me to sit D. for sitting

答案 B

(二)动名词:动词原形+ing (构成方法与现在分词相同)



Traveling abroad can be very exciting.(主语)

(主语是物用exciting,主语是人用excited。(I'm excited.))

Seeing is believing.

What he likes is playing chess after supper.

He hasn't much hope of realizing his wish.

She is afraid of going out alone at night. (be afraid of 害怕做某事)

As the three-day conference is coming to an end, the chairman is busy preparing the closing speech.(be busy doing 忙于做某事)

They don't approve of his way of looking at things.

(approve of 赞成)

在句型It is no use / useless / useful / senseless, It is no good, It is worthwhile, It is a waste of time 等中,作主语的必须是动名词。

It is no use crying now. Let's try to think out a way to solve the problem.(think out 想出……)

It's no good waiting outside. Let's walk home.

It's waste of time arguing about it.

Though it may take some time, it is worthwhile trying.


I don't think it good waiting for him now. Let's do our homework.

We agree it worthwhile trying it again.

She found it useless arguing with her parents about her marriage.

He thought it absolutely useless attempting the impossible.

Do you consider it good trying again?



They're all opposed (objected ) to putting the meeting off.(oppose to 反对…… to是介词 put off 推迟)

I've been looking forward to attending the party for a long time.

(look forward to 盼望做某事)

She is afraid of falling behind the others.

be afraid of: 害怕做某事,害怕发生某种后果;be afraid to do sth.:不敢做某事。I'm afraid to go back home, for I can't pass the exam.

I don't feel like eating anything.

They prefer driving to walking. (prefer doing to doing)

She hurried back to school for fear of missing too many lessons.

(fear of 害怕)

The child is accustomed to sleeping alone.be accustomed to 习惯

注意used to和be used to, get used to的区别。used to 后面接动词原形,表示"过去经常干某事", be used to 和 get used to 后面接名词、代词、动名词,表示"习惯于某事"。

I used to be a teacher in this school.

She didn't use to recite so many new words a day.

My sister is used to walking to school alone.

My mother wasn't used to living in the city when she was alive.


有些动词, finish, stand(容忍), avoid, suggest, can't help, mind, admit, enjoy, delay, practice, consider, deny, keep (on), insist on, give up, have difficulty / trouble (in)等,后面必须接动名词(不能接不定式)作宾语。

Would you mind filling out the form?

I haven't finish doing my homework.

I enjoy walking along the river bank after supper.

As the price of the computer keeps (on) going down, more and more families can afford it.

The girl insists on living alone .

有些动词,如remember, forget, need, want, try, mean, regret, stop, go on等,后面既可以接不定式又可接动名词作宾语,但两种结构意义上有差别。

I remember seeing you once somewhere.(remember doing 记得过去的事情)

Please remember to bring the book next time when you come to my home.(remember to do sth. 记得要做的事情)

I regret not listening to your advice. (regret doing sth. 后悔做过某事)

I regret to inform you that you're dismissed from the company.(regret to do sth. 对未发生的事情感到遗憾)

I'll never forget seeing the Great Wall for the first time. (forget doing 忘记过去的事情)

Don't forget to come earlier next time.(forget to do 忘记要做的事情)

She doesn't want(need) to come.(want 想)

The house wants(needs) cleaning.(want 后接doing主语一定是物)

Try knocking at the back door if nobody hears you at the front door.(try doing 试一试)

We must try to finish the assignment before the boss comes back.(try to do 设法做某事)

Failing in the exam means waiting for another year.(mean doing 意味着)

I meant to help you.(mean to do 打算做某事)

He stopped smoking last week.(stop doing 停止某事)

He stopped to smoke after he finished this article.(stop to do 停下来开始做另外一件事)

My good friend told me that I shouldn't go on living like that.(go on doing 继续做某事)

Having visited the Tiananmen Square, the tourist guide went on to show us around the city.(go on to do 接下来干另一件事)



Do you mind my reading your book?(比较:Do you mind reading the book?)

Do you think there will be any chance of my seeing him again?

I remember mother once mentioning about it.

She hates people losing their tempers.(lose one's temper 发脾气)

She insisted on their both attending the meeting.

The baby's crying annoyed its mother.


构成: being + 过去分词。当动名词的逻辑主语或句子的主语是动名词所表示的动作的承受者时,动名词要用被动形式。

The problem is far from being settled.

My five-year-old son didn't mind being left at home the whole morning.

I couldn't bear being made fun of like that. (bear 容忍;make fun of 取笑)

The child avoided being sent to school by running away quickly.(avoid doing sth.)


She denied having shot the bird.

He was praised for having made such a great contribution to the factory.(make a contribution to 对……做贡献)

I apologize for not having kept my promise.

We have no idea of his having been in the army for three years.

I don't remember having ever been given a chance to try this method.(remeber doing 记得过去发生的事情;动名词完成时被动式,构成为:having been + 过去分词。)

在want, need, deserve , require, be worth, 等动词后,尽管表示的是被动的意思,却用动名词的主动形式。

My pen needs filling.

The question requires studying with great care.

Who needs looking after?

The place is worth visiting.

1. He used to ______ the first to arrive and the last to leave.

A. is B. was C. being D. be

used to +动词原型

答案 B

2. She ______ eat so many sweet things.

A. used to not B. never used

C. didn't use to D. didn't use

答案 C

3. Mr. Brown often wears a heavy coat because he is not used _____ in such a cold climate.

A. to live B. to living C. live D. lived

答案 B

4. I like Jean but I don't like _______.

A. her sing B. her singing C. she sing D. she singing


答案 B

5. "Why is Fred so upset?"

"He isn't used ______ criticized."

A. be B. to be C. to being D. having been

答案 C

6. Do you remember _______ to Professor Smith during your last visit?

A. to be introduced B. being introduced

C. having introduced D. to have introduced

答案 B

主动语态中介绍某人 introduce sb. to sb.

7. "Is George really leaving the university?"

"Yes. But would you mind _______ to anyone?"

A. not mentioning it B. not to mention it

C. not mention it D. not to mentioning it

答案 A

8. It's no use _______ to get a bargain these days.

A. to expect B. expected C. expecting D. to be expecting

it is no use doing

答案 C

9. She is looking forward as much to his return as he himself to _______ her.

A. have seen B. see C. seeing D. be seen

答案 C

10. It's no use ________ your chickens before they are hatched.

A. counting B. count C. to count D. of counting


答案 A


在句子中可以作主语、表语、定语、宾语。考生应特别注意有些动词。如mind, enjoy, avoid后面作宾语的只能是动名词,而有些只能是不定式,有些如remember, forget, stop 既可接动名词又可接不定式,但意义有差别。

1.Would you mind ________ a little less noise?

A. to make B. make C. making D. to have made

(答案 C)

2.I remember ________ her at a party last weekend.

A. to meet B. meeting C. having met D. to have

met(答案 B)

3.You must remember _________ back the umbrella tomorrow.

A. to bring B. bringing C. having brought D. to have

brought(答案 A)




China is a developing country.

His words made me thinking a lot.


The United States is a developed country.

There was so much noise that the speaker couldn't make himself heard.



Who is the woman standing by the door?(定语)

The girl dressed in white is my sister.(定语)

A letter posted today will probably reach in the day after towmorrow.(定语)

The theory sounds quite convincing. (表语 物作主语表语是ing的形式,人作表语分词用ed的形式。)

She seemed quite delighted at the idea. (表语)

Working in this way, they greatly reduced the cost.(状语)

Not even pausing to put on the coat, I ran out of the door.(状语)

Built in Ming Dynasty, the bridge is over 800 years old.(状语)

Do you see a boy running towards us?(宾语补足语)

(感官动词如:see, hear, feel, watch 后可跟动名词,也可跟不定式,但意思有区别。Do you see a boy run towards us? )

You'd better have your shoes mended.(宾语补足语,have sth. done 让别人作某事)

If students are caught cheating in exams, they will be kicked out of school. (宾语补足语,(kick sb. out of sth.: 驱赶某人。They knocked him out (of the club) for fighting. )



The hunters had the fire burning all the night in the woods.


My mother had her hair cut as soon as she finished her work.

Liping had two of his teeth knocked out in the fight at school.


The teacher always has us recite texts.



They sat facing each other.(伴随)

She left the hall still weeping.(伴随)

Insisting that we were not tired , we urged him to go on.(urge要求,让)


Not knowing his address, we couldn't get in touch with him.(get in touch with sb.和某人保持联系,原因)

Seeing those pictures, I couldn't help thinking of the days we spent together. (时间)

Absorbed in the work, he neglected food and sleep. (背景)

He soon fell asleep, exhausted by the journey.(原因)

Seen from the hill, the city looks magnificent. (条件)


She rushed into the room, her face covered with sweat.

Weather permitting, we'll have a picnic tomorrow.

Her eyes dimmed with tears, she did not see her mother enter.(dim 模糊)

All things considered, her paper is of greater value than yours.

(be of value=be valuable)

4. 现在分词的完成式与被动式

当分词表示的动作发生在谓语表示的动作之前时,分词应用完成式。构成:having +过去分词。

Having finished his homework, the boy began to watch TV.

Not having made adequate preparations, they thought it better to postpone the work till next week.

The guest having left, they continued their discussion.


The building being repaired is our library.

You'll find the topic being talked about everywhere.


Do you know anything about the meeting being held in Beijing?(会议正在进行)

Do you know anything about the meeting held in Beiing?(会议已经结束)



1. When I returned home, I found the window open and a number of things _____.

A. to steal B. stealing C. stolen D. missed


答案 C

2. Not too many years ago, it was an ______ experience to travel 25 or 50 miles from home.

A. excited B. exciting C. excitement D. excitingly

答案 B

3. Some of the guests _______ to the party were from other cities.

A. to invite B. invited C. being invited D. had been invited

invite sb.邀请别人

答案 B

4. The telephone was invented in 1876 by a man _______ Alexander Graham Bell.

A. named B. naming C. that names D. who named

D的正确答案为:who was named)

答案 A

5. ________ the room, the teacher laid the instrument on the device.

A. Entering B. To enter C. Having entered D. Having been entered

答案 C

6. _______ the street, he was knocked down by a car.

A. While crossing B. While crossed

C. Being crossing D. Being crossed

答案 A

7. The doctor soon made the _______ patient feel at ease.

A. worried B. worrying C. worry D. worries

答案 A

8. He spoke clearly in order to _______.

A. make him understanding B. make him understand

C. make himself understood D. make himself understand

答案 C

9. I am ______ to hear that a man of your age and with such good sense should talk in this way.

A. astonish B. astonishing C. astonished D. to astonish

答案 C

10. The cinema, _______ last month, is very popular, especially amon

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